What are Carbohydrates?

Carbohydrates (also known as saccharides) are chemical compounds that are made up of oxygen, hydrogen and carbon. 

They are one of the three major components or macro-nutrients of all food. The other two are proteins and fats.

There are four main types of carbohydrates. These are classified according to the number of sugar molecules they contain.

                1. Monosaccharide, such as glucose and fructose, contain only one sugar molecule.

                2. Disaccharides, such as sucrose and lactose, contain two sugar molecules.

                3. Oligosaccharides, found in many vegetables, are short chains of monosaccharide.

                4. Polysaccharides, such as starch and glycogen, are long chains of sugars. 

(1) And (2) classes are known as simple carbohydrates, (3) and (4) as complex carbohydrates.

In the language of diets, however, the definitions are less strict. For nutritionists, the term carbohydrate refers either to any food (such as cereals, bread, and pasta).

That is especially rich in starch (a complex carbohydrate), Or to the next simple carbohydrates it is such as sugar that are found in sweets (candies), jams, and desserts.

Sugar itself is the dietician's term for monosaccharide and disaccharides, the simple carbohydrates.

They are fairly easy to recognize because the names of these saccharides very often end in -ose. 

For example, grape sugar is glucose (a monosaccharide), cane sugar is sucrose (a disaccharide), and milk sugar is lactose (another disaccharide).

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